King Archidamus did not stop with his invasions. The Peloponnesian War lasting from 432-400 BC did have an effect on Greek art, and for that reason, it should be referred to by separating and marking a major break in the history of Greek art. Due to these enemies, Plataea was seized by Sparta and Thebes together. Neither you nor we can see into them: we have to abide their outcome in the dark. Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. In the year 431 BC, King Archidamus came with a huge Peloponnesian army and attacked Attica and invaded it. Finally, I will examine their political long-term stability. What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Using Teaching And Study? Ancient Greece during the 4th century B.C. ( Log Out /  Sparta, however, being more powerful won the war and Athens was defeated. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0009%3Achapter%3D12. Thucydides suggests that this power was the underlying cause of the war. These two communities were the superpowers of the region during that time. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR In the year 435 BC, Epidamus requested Corcyra to send military aid, a request that was not fulfilled. Importance of the Peloponnesian War . During this period Athens started acquiring a lot of wealth and was supremacy at the sea. Epidamus requested Corinth for assistance and, therefore, led to their own colonization. The first phase is known as Archidamian War. Date This series of defeats, both on land and at sea, eventually led to Sparta’s victory in a final battle in 405 B.C.E., which was located near Hellespont. Peloponnesian War refers to the war fought between Athens and Sparta's Peloponnesian League. If we were to examine each war including today’s possible threats and list their causes we would be able to recognize the familiar patterns. Sparta featured a strong year-round army of hoplites that was adept at fighting on land. and involved two Greek city-states, namely, Sparta and Athens. Peloponnesian wars were a result of the lack of understanding between Athens and Sparta. O It spread democracy to Sparta and a few other small city-states. The defeat of Athens in the Peloponnesian War caused the downfall of Greece, and the end of the Classical Age. Hyper History: Peloponnesian War I'm a student in training to become a historian. Its two conflicting forces were the Peloponnesian League, which was headed by the city-state Sparta, and the Delian League, which was headed city-state of Athens. was home to the city-states of Sparta and Athens. [3], The military revolution referred to the fact that a new phenomenon was sweeping Greece, and while Sparta especially had focused all of their time and energy on creating a strong heavy infantry, changes were coming that would make their brute strength less imposing. O It strengthened democracy in Athens, but it stopped the spread to the city-states. Caused by the growing tension between Athens and Sparta, it came and left, leaving only destruction in its wake. In 431 BCE a tragic war began, the Peloponnesian War. This greatly alarmed Sparta and its allies. Sparta required Athens to give up their battleships and naval forces, surrender their city and territories to Spartan rule and monitoring, and allow their walls leading to the port at Piraeus to be knocked down. The Persian war begun because the lonians city-states owed money to Persia and the lonians city-states were conquered by Cyrus II of Persia. Both of these wars affected Greek history. The longer a war lasts, the more things tend to depend on accidents. Each of the participants in the warfare was backed by its closest allies as they sought to win at all cost, no matter how long it would take. The people of Attica fled to Athens. This happened due to the discontentment of Macedonia with Athens decision to raze the city of Corinth to ground. Fought between the allies of Sparta and the empire of Athens, the crippling Peloponnesian War paved the way for the Macedonian takeover of Greece by Philip II of Macedon and, following that, Alexander the Great's empire. when Sparta and the other city-states of the Peloponnesian League declared war on Athens after it tried to interfere with a Corinthian colony’s actions. The Peloponnesian War changed Greece in every way. ( Log Out /  These two cities are very close to each other yet they are very different. The Peloponnesian War: Overview, Outcome, and Effects ( Log Out /  The causes of the war, are that the Athenian Empire upset the balance of power in the Greek world. Peloponnesian war took place between 431 and 404 B.C. The Corinthian's protested to this alliance, but Athens was in favor of it. However, with Sparta’s ignorance towards foreign people, the results of the war were worse than the war itself.      When looking for a single cause of the peloponnesian war none can be found. [2]  In this regard, the weaknesses of the various Greek city-states would be viewed as strengths in other circumstances. Over time many events contributed to the eventual war between Sparta and Athens. Firstly, I will present Athens and Sparta generally. However, there has been only one which changed the course of Greek history forever; the Peloponnesian War. There were several differences in the militaries of Sparta and Athens. What were the longterm effects of the Peloponnesian War on Greece? After the Corinthian fleets were rebuilt, they attacked Corcyra in Sybota. Although the conflict lasted for 28 years, and caused huge economic, political, and societal problems for both Athens and Sparta as well as their numerous respective allies. The peloponnesian war between these two states evolved out of a string of events that would lead to years of conflict. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. The Peloponnesian War was a series of battles that were fought between 431-401 B.C.E. They were attacked by Plague and nearly 80000 Athenians died. As a result of the alliance, 30 years of truce came to a bloody end. These weaknesses encouraged military development and allowed the increased use of light infantry or peltasts, which had effectively decimated a hoplite army under Iphicrates in 390 BC. The first phase is known as Archidamian War. View all posts by JMcFarland. The war separated and disconnected the poleis of ancient Greece, and other negative aspects of war were highlighted by Thucydides, who writes of the war and states, “think, too, of the great part that is played by the unpredictable in war: think of it now, before you are actually committed to war. After this battle Corinth had to re-establish itself and now they needed to make fresh allies. The roots of the Peloponnesian war can be traced long before 431 BCE, when it officially started, During The Peloponnesian War, Sparta was able to dominate Athens and win the war. Athens was politically, economically, and militarily affected, while Sparta was only slightly affected politically and militarily. [4] D. Brendan Nagle, The Ancient World, a Social  and Cultural History eighth edition (Boston: Pearson, 2014), 102. The Plateans were very happy under the Athenian rule. These two communities were the superpowers of the region during that time. This was considered to be the first breach of agreement between Corcyra and Athens. Based on historical evidence, experts have divided this war into 3 different phases. There are many factors that lead societies into war whether between themselves or other countries. War has been a common theme that people from the past has been faced with and a common theme we fear today. This value system allowed for the Athenians to repeatedly refuse Sparta’s offers of peace after major defeats, and it also encouraged Athenians to keep fighting and for Spartans to press on long after the conflict should have ended. The Peloponnesian war had lasting, traumatic effects for Greek society, breaking any chance of a unified Greek state that could stand together against invaders, which ultimately left the door open for Macedonian control. A great, “Clouds” and the “History of Peloponnesian War” The Greeks were proud, and valued honor almost above all else. Corinth and Sparta were allies. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. Both were cities in Greece. Nothing was the same after the war and Athens was never to be as powerful. [1], Throughout the war, the weaknesses displayed by both sides seem to point to the very same values that were examined in previous readings. O It helped democracy spread to many city-states around the Aegean Sea. [8], [1] Thomas R Martin, “An Overview of Classical Greek History from Mycenae to Alexander,” Tufts University, accessed June 22, 2016, http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0009%3Achapter%3D12. The participants in Sparta’s military were trained throughout their whole lives for the sole purpose of battle. ( Log Out /  Athens is the capital of Greece and also was its largest city.