Here are some key words or phrases that indicate a CONCLUSION: therefore, so, hence, thus, it follows that, as a result, consequently. Many slaves are tormented by their slave owners. In this case it indicates that the claim following it is being offered as a reason to accept the claim before it. Some examples of indicator words and phrases that can be found with conclusions include, therefore, thus, which follows that, consequently, so, hence, etc. For most of us the answer is clear. Identifying Premises and Conclusions The premises and conclusion are the following: 1. She is currently reading for a Masters degree in English. 4. The claim that expresses the main point is the conclusion. Valid versus Invalid Arguments Therefore, abortion is wrong. (5:49), 3. (6:38), 5. So, rewriting this argument in standard form, it looks like this ... 1. The first strategy is simply to ask yourself what the author of this argu Sometimes the conclusion is buried or implicit and we have to reconstruct the argument based on what’s given, and it’s not always obvious how to do this. Premise 1: Cats with long hair have lots of fleas. To do this, we look at each of the claims in the argument and we ask ourselves, is this the main point that the arguer is trying to convey, or is this being offered as a reason to accept some other claim? Sometimes the conclusion of an argument is obvious, but sometimes it’s not. So, which claim is the conclusion of this argument? What is a Good Argument (II)? Argument analysis would be a lot easier if people gave their arguments in standard form, with the premises and conclusions flagged in an obvious way. Given below are some more examples of arguments with their premises and conclusions. What are Premises and Conclusions in an Argument, Difference Between Euphemism and Doublespeak, Difference Between Mother Tongue and First Language, What is the Difference Between Aphorism and Adage, Difference Between Slang and Colloquial Language, What is the Difference Between Escape Conditioning and Avoidance Conditioning, What is the Difference Between Fiscal Year and Calendar Year, What is the Difference Between Turkey and Chicken, What is the Difference Between Cowboy and Wrangler, What is the Difference Between Epic Theatre and Dramatic Theatre, What is the Difference Between Sticky Rice and Jasmine Rice. (4:25), 3. Her areas of interests include literature, language, linguistics and also food. Inductive Arguments and Scientific Reasoning It contains the information that leads your audience to believe that your argument is true. Right now, the enemy is launching a massive military buildup, and we need the additional money to purchase military equipment to match the anticipated increase in the enemy’s strength.". A deductive argument is either valid (true) or invalid (false). What is a Claim? Paying attention to indicator words can really help to simplify the task of reconstructing an argument. (conclusion) The argument map for … Premise: A good society needs creative thinking that produces new hypotheses, expanded means, a larger set of alternatives, and, in general, the vigorous conversation induced by fresh ideas. Here, the conclusion is presented first and the premise is connected to it by the linking word because. Some examples of indicator words that can be found with premises include because, since, given that, considering that, but, and, or, etc. Notice that there are no indicator words that might help us flag the conclusion. true. (premise) 3. (premises) support – there can only be one conclusion! Therefore, learning to distinguish premises from conclusions takes prac tice. The expression ‘illegal drugs’ could not be a premise or a conclusion, since it is not a An argument can be extremely strong but have false premises and a false conclusion. Logical Argument - 2 Logical Argument: Inductive and Deductive Argument There are two broad categories of argument: • Deductive Arguments are arguments where the conclusion follows with necessity from the premises. Arguments in natural language aren’t usually presented in standard form, so we need to know how to extract the logical structure from the language that’s given. but that’s jut not the case. The premise is that small fish is rich in calcium; the conclusion is that your body will benefit if you eat them. Children enjoy tormenting people. The claims that are functioning as reasons to accept the main point are the premises. Now, keywords like these make it much easier to identify conclusions, but not all arguments have keywords that flag the conclusion. premises and conclusions of their argument. There are words and phrases that indicate premises too. In these cases you have to rely on your ability to analyze context and read for the argument. What is a Good Argument (I)? First, we’re consciously, intentionally, reading for the argument, and when we do this we’re asking ourselves, “what claim are we being asked to believe or accept, and what other claims are being offered as reasons to accept that claim?”. Let’s describe the two terms, premise and conclusion, using some examples. Here’s a more complex argument that illustrates this point: "We must reduce the amount of money we spend on space exploration. (9:41), Quiz: Inductive Arguments and Scientific Reasoning. In the field of critical thinking, an argument is a statement or a group of statements that includes at least one premise and conclusion. Strong Inductive Argument . But people don’t usually talk this way, or write this way. “We must reduce the amount of money we spend on space exploration.”? “Abortion is wrong” is the conclusion, and “All human life is sacred” is the premise. Well, two things are going on. Here are a few: since, if, because, from which it follows, for these reasons, "John will probably receive the next promotion SINCE he’s been here the longest.". Argument analysis would be a lot easier if people gave their arguments in standard form, with the premises and conclusions flagged in an obvious way.